Easter Eggs and Cultural References

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Within the Ultima universe appears a great variety of Easter eggs and cultural references, which range from often humorous asides to significant influences on the series' fiction. The list below strives to be a definitive compilation of all such instances.

Similarly, many Ultima characters are inspired in some fashion by real-world counterparts.

Age of Darkness[edit]

Akalabeth[edit]

Main article: Akalabeth
  • The name Akalabeth derives from the fourth part of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Silmarillion, Akallabêth, which details the downfall of the continent of Númenor in the author's Middle-earth universe. The Silmarillion was published two years prior to Akalabeth's 1979 release; other than the title, however, there is little similarity between the game's plot and Tolkien's text.
  • The final adversary that must be vanquished by the player is a balrog, a type of demonic monster from Tolkien's works (notably The Lord of the Rings). In the Ultima games that followed Akalabeth, these formidable beasts would come to be known instead as balrons.

Ultima I[edit]

Main article: Ultima I
Ultima I features enemy ships that appear to be TIE fighters from the Star Wars films.
  • Many of the cities in the Lands of the Feudal Lords are named after family and friends of Richard Garriott: Owen, Helen, and Linda, after his father, mother, and sister; Arnold, after veteran Ultima programmer and musician, Ken Arnold; and Gerry, after a programmer acquaintance of Garriott's (presumably Gerry Mayer).[1]
  • The eight princesses and their seemingly arbitrary imprisonment are a deliberate tribute to the "damsel in distress" cliché, seen in many fictional works.[2]
  • The second most powerful weapon in the game is the phazor, a pastiche of Star Trek's phasers.
  • The Pillar of Ozymandias is a reference to the famous sonnet by Percy Bysshe Shelley. The inscription on the pillar ("I am Ozymandias, King of Kings / Look on my works, ye mighty, and despair!") is a direct quote from the poem, as is the "Nothing beside remains" comment.
  • In the Apple version of Ultima I's 1986 re-release, programmer John Miles included a routine whereby waiting for the title screen's animated sequence to loop a number of times causes two alternate events to occur. With every fourth repeat of the sequence, an armoured knight rides along the medieval landscape's horizon; however, every fourth time this knight is scheduled to appear (i.e. after sixteen loops), a red Lamborghini is instead shown approaching the depicted castle and entering through its open door. Each of these animations can also be manually triggered when the small white Origin logo is shown against the landscape: pressing Control+K causes the knight to appear, while pressing Control+Shift+P on the Apple version or Control+Shift+2 on the Apple IIe introduces the Lamborghini. It is possible to perform each command in quick succession to display both the rider and sports car simultaneously.[3]

Ultima II[edit]

Main article: Ultima II: The Revenge of the Enchantress
  • Several real-world corporations are lampooned in the game:
  • John Mayer, the manager of the ComputerLand store where Garriott worked while developing Akalabeth,[4] appears in Towne Linda's Transport shop along with Gerry Mayer, presumably a relative and another acquaintance of Garriott's.
  • The town of Tommersville on Pluto is an homage to the popular early-1980s Apple II magazine Softalk. The publication's co-founders, Margot and Al Tommervik, appear in the town's Softalk store, while the wizardry shoppe, Kurts, is named after magazine contributor Kurt Wahlner.
Ending for the C64
  • Various pictograms are formed by the clusters of trees in New Jester, including the titular protagonist of Pac-Man and one of its ghost enemies.

Ultima III[edit]

Main article: Ultima III: Exodus
A self-referential bartender
  • A metafictive line is sometimes given by bartenders in the game: "EXODUS: Ultima ]I[, which is next? Now could it be."
  • In the NES version, someone ask if the Players are descendants of Link. An allusion to the Nintendo game character Link.
  • Richard Garriott can be found in the NES version. He will ask if they know who he is. If the answer was "no", he will tell that he has created Ultima! If you talk to him again, he will tell that believe it or not he is Richard Garriott.

Age of Enlightenment[edit]

Ultima IV[edit]

Main article: Ultima IV: Quest of the Avatar
  • In the Amiga version of the game, anyone who is told the word ojnab (banjo, backwards) will reward the player with the secret number of a person named Banjo Bob by saying: "Hi Banjo Bob! Your secret number is 4F4A4E0A". This string of characters is the hexadecimal for "OJN", the last three letters in the aforementioned "ojnab". "Banjo" Bob Hardy is the author of the Amiga version of Ultima IV.
  • Pressing Control+S will reveal all the player's progress values for the Eight Virtues. This spared the game's designers and playtesters from having to continually return to the castle and ask Hawkwind about their status in each Virtue.

Ultima V[edit]

Main article: Ultima V: Warriors of Destiny
Ken Arnold's "FLIPFLOP" subroutine
Ultima V credits with Toshi Morita's name removed.
  • In the city of Skara Brae there is a tombstone that reads, "Here Lies the Tale End of a Bard." This epitaph refers to Skara Brae's mutual inclusion in both the Ultima series and The Bard's Tale, which for a period shared a designer in Roe R. Adams III.
  • The farmer Christopher in the Britannys talks about a fantasy work he is writing, called Times of Lore. This character is the Britannian counterpart of prominent Origin designer Chris Roberts, who created the company's 1988 action role-playing game, Times of Lore, before going on to conceive his magnum opus, the Wing Commander series. Cross-promotion of other Origin titles would continue in future Ultima installments.
  • When describing himself in conversation, Chuckles claims to be "trustworthy, loyal, helpful, friendly, courteous, kind, obedient, cheerful, thrifty, brave, clean, and reverent." He is quoting the Scout Law of the Boy Scouts of America.
  • If any characters are sworn at during a conversation, they will scold the player. The list of recognized obscenities is comprehensive and can be found by hex-editing the Ultima V data files: in the DOS version, it is located in the file DATA.OVL. Notably, the final phrase to appear in this profanity list is "ELECTRONIC ARTS", a pointed response to founder Trip Hawkins' refusal to address Richard Garriott's allegations of plagiarism against their 1987 CRPG, Deathlord.[9] Hawkins himself appears as a shipwright in East Britanny, and would later inspire a prominent role in the mythology of Ultima VI.
  • A horse for the Avatar will be created should one be wished for upon dropping a coin into a well. However, a variety possessing greatly increased speed can also be granted by wishing for "corvette", "ferrari", "lamborghini", "lotus", or "porsche".
  • Yelling "FLIPFLOP" in the Apple II version of the game causes each tile on the screen to invert itself, top to bottom; yelling it again restores the view to normal. During development, this subroutine was installed on Richard Garriott's computer as a practical joke by composer Ken Arnold, originally to execute automatically after a few minutes of inactivity when the Ultima creator would foreseeably leave his terminal idle. After confounding Garriott, who believed it to be a bizarre program malfunction, Arnold confessed responsibility and the team liked the effect so much they left it in the game.[10]
  • In the Apple version of the Acknowledgments screen, pressing Shift+Ctrl+6 will cause Toshi Morita's name to disappear. This stems from a subroutine inserted by Morita himself, in which the command would trigger the appearance of a flashing arrow next to his name in the list of credits. When Morita left Origin prior to the release of Ultima V, however, his colleagues discovered his surreptitious code and, as a joke, rewrote it so his name would be erased instead.
  • The magical harpsichord in Lord British's chambers can not only make the designated section of wall disappear, but also transform objects put in its place.

Ultima VI[edit]

Main article: Ultima VI: The False Prophet
  • The first introduction sequence contains several items of note:
    • The television being watched by the Avatar can have its channel manually changed by pressing a corresponding number on the keyboard. At the time of release, the phone number displayed during the televangelist segment belonged to Origin's customer service department.
    • The digital clock above the Avatar's television displays the system time of the player's computer.
    • A can of Coca-Cola is on the side table, along with a copy of the Stephen King horror novel, It (parodied here as If).
    • The paintings hanging to either side of the entertainment center are depictions of two real pieces: the first is a 1986 airbrush painting by Ultima VI artist Keith Berdak,[11] while Denis Loubet's Ultima V cover art is shown when the view pans to the back window. Berdak's work replaced an illustration of a woman by Patrick Nagel, which can be seen in a screenshot on the back of the Ultima VI box.
    • The discarded pizza box on the floor is styled after that of Domino's Pizza, instead with a logo incorporating a checkerboard.
  • The title screen's accompanying music can be substituted with other pieces from the game by pressing numbers on the keyboard, which correspond as follows:
    • 1: "The Ultima Theme" (default)
    • 2: "Can't Remove the Pain" (first introduction sequence)
    • 3: "Fall Leaves" (second introduction sequence)
    • 4: "I Hear You Crying" (character creation)
    • 5: "Black Forest" (wandering theme)
    • 6: "Captain John's Hornpipe" (sailing theme)
    • 7: "Engagement and Melee" (combat theme)
    • 8: "Stones"
    • 9: "The Wander" (dungeon theme)
    • 0: "Rule Britannia"
  • The Caverns of Freitag, a 1982 CRPG developed for MUSE Software by David Shapiro (a.k.a. Dr. Cat), is referenced both as a book and in the exploits of Gertan, a fighter in Cove reputed to have slain the game's eponymous dragon and donated its remains to Britain's Royal Museum.
  • By 1990, Richard Garriott held a caustic view of Electronic Arts and founder Trip Hawkins, accusing the corporation of plagiarizing the Ultima series before finding himself targeted by a frivolous lawsuit designed to force Origin into paying an out-of-court settlement.[9][12] This incident inspired Garriott to include a sardonic tribute to Hawkins, and other senior Electronic Arts personnel, in the form of reviled pirate Captain Hawkins—who stole Captain Johne's Silver Tablet before being murdered by his own crew—and three of his crewmates: Alastor Gordon (Bing Gordon), Bonn (Stewart Bonn), and Old Ybarra (Joe Ybarra).
  • Reading the signs of the various crypts in the Moonglow Catacombs can be enlightening. There are crypts for Warren Spector, Steve Cantrell, Paul Malone, Dan Bourbonnais and Mike Romero, all Origin staff.
  • Some tombstones also read "Burma Grave". This plays upon "Burma Shave", a brand of brushless shaving cream famous for posting rhyming billboards next to highways.

The Savage Empire[edit]

Main article: Worlds of Ultima: The Savage Empire
  • When looking at the cave maps in a map viewer, the letters "SMB" become visible in an unreachable location. They are the initials of worldbuilder Stephen Beeman.

Martian Dreams[edit]

Main article: Worlds of Ultima: Martian Dreams
  • In the introduction sequence there is a poster of the Ultima VI box art hanging in the Avatar's house, complete with the title logo.
  • If Dr. Spector is asked about spam, he will say he enjoys eating it. This is in reference to the "spam, spam, spam, humbug" cheat code in Ultima VI.
  • If the player goes into solo mode with Dr. Spector and attempts to make him repair the wiring at the power station, he will shout Avon's "I am not expendable" tirade from Blake's 7.
  • The appearance of Chsheket's bare mechanical form may have been inspired by the Maschinenmensch from Fritz Lang's pioneering science-fiction film, Metropolis.
  • Dorothy's iconic ruby slippers from The Wizard of Oz are buried among the glaciers south of Hellas. When used, they offer a chance to view the game's ending sequence; if the player chooses not to, a brief view of a Kansas wheat field is shown instead.
  • Using a map viewer reveals the name "GRYPHON" carved into the northeastern glacier, which is normally unreachable. It is the nickname of Philip Brogden, the game's principal world designer.

Ultima Underworld[edit]

Main article: Ultima Underworld: The Stygian Abyss
  • The Cup of Wonder and the tuneful process of its discovery refer to the eponymous song by British progressive rock band Jethro Tull, who are famously recognized for their use of the flute.
  • On the sixth level, there is a small maze where a substance can be gathered simply by walking over it. The location features four powerful ghosts and teleporters on the sides, and is conspicuously similar to a Pac-Man level.
  • There is a non-hostile dire ghost in the southwest of the sixth level which, upon examination, is revealed to be "a spectre named Warren." This is a pun referring to Warren Spector, producer of Ultima Underworld and a number of other Ultima titles.
  • An inscription carved into the wall of the eighth level reads, "Thou canst not defeat the Drakhri!" In Origin's Wing Commander II, an oft-repeated battle cry of the Kilrathi is, "You cannot defeat the Drakhai!"

Age of Armageddon[edit]

Ultima VII[edit]

Main article: Ultima VII: The Black Gate
Electronic Arts' corporate logo at the time of Ultima VII's release.
The Kilrathi starfighter
  • The Fellowship's procedures and practices emulate many new age religious movements, including Scientology. Its leader, Batlin, bears some similarity to Scientology founder L. Ron Hubbard.
  • On the eastern outskirts of Britain, a Kilrathi Bloodfang starfighter is hovering in the corn field of farmer Mack, who can recount his tale of a cat-like being emerging before he killed and ate it. This is the actual Bloodfang ship graphic from Origin's Wing Commander II, and double-clicking it triggers a performance of that game's "Kilrathi Theme".
  • In Cove there is a bard named De Maria, after author and Origin collaborator, Rusel DeMaria.
  • Northwest of Cove is a flower field that will cause the Avatar and all companions to fall asleep if they walk through it, re-enacting a scene from The Wizard of Oz.
  • In Skara Brae there is a homage to J.R.R. Tolkien in the cemetery. The plaque beneath the statue near Marney's crypt reads, "JRRT / A great man / A great writer."
  • There is a dead crocodile in Hook's subterranean hideout on Buccaneer's Den. Examination of the carcass reveals a pocketwatch, in reference to Captain Hook's encounter with a crocodile in Peter Pan.
  • Other books are written by authors whose names are puns:
    • The Silence of Chastity by I.M. Munk (I am monk)
    • What Could Be Left But The Ashes by N. Flaims (in flames)
  • Lord British can be killed at noon each day, when he stands directly under the brass plaque mounted above the doorway to his throne room: double-clicking this plaque will cause it to fall and decapitate him. This grisly feat is patterned after an actual incident at Origin headquarters, in which the armature plate from an electromagnetic door lock fell from its mounting and struck Richard Garriott's head. The companions' subsequent exclamation, "Yancey-Hausman will pay!", refers to the company responsible for the maintenance of Origin's office building at the time.[16]
  • Should the player succeed in murdering Lord British, searching his corpse uncovers the late king's will, in which he reveals an affair with his maidservant Nell and claims fatherhood of her unborn child. According to Richard Garriott, this particular Easter egg did not receive his approval for inclusion.[17]
  • In the SNES version only, there is a character in the guild hall of Minoc named Lucas. He bears a striking resemblance to George Lucas, the creator of Star Wars.
  • The crucifixion of Christ is re-enacted at Stonegate, complete with a cape, a cup full of blood and a spear. However, unlike the biblical scene, there are several more crucified corpses in the surrounding area.

Ultima Underworld II[edit]

Main article: Ultima Underworld II: Labyrinth of Worlds
Ultima Underworld II's tribute to Akalabeth.
  • A number of paintings in Castle Britannia are box art from previous Ultima games.
  • In Killorn Keep, the Avatar encounters cat-like creatures with an apparently glorious past known as the Trilkhai, who the wisps later reveal were once a space-dwelling race. These beings are an allusion to the Kilrathi of the Wing Commander series, with the name Trilkhai being an anagram of Kilrathi.
  • Also in Killorn Keep, male Avatars can tell Mystell that their name is Abraham Lincoln.
  • In the purple zone of the Ethereal Void, there is an homage to the early entries in the series where dungeons are displayed with vector lines (such as in Akalabeth), complete with primitively drawn enemies. There is also a goblin named A. I. Crunchowicz in this zone, a reference to the protagonist of id Software's Wolfenstein 3D, B. J. Blazcowicz.
  • The sequence in which the Avatar has to recolor a pyramid in the Void five times, by jumping on each step once, is an exact replica of the puzzle-game Q-Bert (including the pads for returning to the top).

Ultima VII Part Two[edit]

Main article: Ultima VII Part Two: Serpent Isle
  • Most of the game's character portraits are based on photographs of Origin staff, their family members, and friends, while others are submissions remaining from the Immortality Contest held for Ultima VII.[18]
  • In the town of Monitor, there is a heavily tattooed woman named Lydia, who specializes in tribal tattoos. Although not conclusive, it is possible that her name is a reference to the 1939 song, "Lydia the Tattooed Lady", once popularized by Groucho Marx.
  • In the book The Structure of Order, there is a passage that reads, "Some will tell thee that Logic is 'a little bird chirping in a meadow' or that it is 'a wreath of flowers which smell bad'." This is a reference to the 1967 Star Trek episode, "I, Mudd", in which Spock uses irrational statements such as these to short-circuit a number of androids.
  • In perhaps one of Serpent Isle's more infamous Easter eggs, the NFL's Dallas Cowboys are paid tribute in two of the game's cheat rooms. The first, hidden on the Isles of the Mad Mage, is a hedonistic and lavishly outfitted grotto adorned with a painting and lifelike statues of the team's cheerleaders. Another such tapestry is also found in the cellar accessed below the stairway to Pothos' apothecary, which leads further—via a secret passage—to a replica football field, complete with a cheer squad and a "team" of ice trolls and elementals. This Easter egg was created by Ultima VII Part Two artist and assistant designer Steve Powers.[18]
  • Persistently double-clicking on some types of animal eventually gives farcical results. Performing this action on a cat will cause it to spontaneously explode, prompting a party member to exclaim, "Bloody cats!" If done to a sheep, the Avatar will stand behind it and appear to engage in lewd behaviour. The party will subsequently scold, "That's baaaad!" and, "Thou art SICK!"
  • A glowing egg called Dave is found in the game's data files; it is presumably named after David Beyer, who is listed in the credits as "Eggman".

Ultima VIII[edit]

Main article: Ultima VIII: Pagan
Arnold's tombstone
  • In the game's quotes section, Origin responds to the "Doom Insanity" chapter of id Software's official Doom FAQ, in which one of the reasons jokingly given for Doom's delayed release is, "If Origin can do it, so can we." Of their own late shipment, the Ultima VIII development team counters here with, "If id can do it, so can we."
  • The Ear of Arricorn books lampoon The Eye of Argon, a 1970 fantasy novella by Jim Theis infamous for its bizarre diction, clichéd plot, and poor grammar.
  • The "cheesy book" hidden on the Ethereal Plane is the work of programmer Jason Ely, who coded the pop-up element for in-game books and wrote this to test multi-page varieties. Containing a farcical short story about protagonist Jely's (as in J. Ely) discovery of cheese, the book was eventually noticed by colleagues Richard Garriott and John Watson, who found it so amusing they elected to keep it in the game.[19] The Jely character further appears in another book, Stories to Make Children Sleep by Brother Grim (itself an overt reference to Children's and Household Tales by the Brothers Grimm), where he refuses to eat anything but cheese.
  • Another of Jason Ely's test books, which features a song about a demon named Fred, parodies the opening theme of The Beverly Hillbillies.[19]
  • The morphing object (cube, sphere, tetrahedron) is a reference to Electronic Arts' original logo.
  • When Mordea rants in her throne room and barks orders to Salkind, one of her commands is, "Off with her head!", after the oft-repeated catchphrase of the Queen of Hearts from Alice in Wonderland.
  • A gravestone in the cemetery reads, "ARNOLD / HASTA LAVISTA BABY", jocularly honoring Arnold Schwarzenegger and his iconic line in Terminator 2: Judgment Day. Others are inscribed with similarly comical epitaphs, many of which refer to Ultima VIII development team members and Origin staff:
    • "SIR RICHARD DIED OF FRIGHT / PLUNGED FROM A GREAT HEIGHT": Richard Garriott (producer; took the team skydiving)
    • "ROB IS NOW DEAD / HE SHOULD NOT HAVE GONE TO LEGAS [sic]": Rob Corell (programmer, voice actor)
    • "HERE LIES BEVERLY / DIED IN REVELRY": Beverly Garland (artist)
    • "SAD BUT TRUE / HERE LIES PRIEST / PRACTICED ART / AND NOW DECEASED": Micael Priest (artist)
    • "STEVE / CRUNCHED TO DEATH": Steve Powers (artist, writer, designer)
    • "SHERRI'S LAST PLOT": Sheri Graner Ray (writer)
    • "MEL HAS RETURNED TO HELL": Melanie Green (writer, designer; affectionately known at Origin as "Mel from Hell")
    • "HERE LIES BRIAN / FELLED BY A KILLER SPIDER": Brian Martin (writer, designer)
    • "R I P / SWORDPROOF VITTEK": Mark Vittek (writer, designer)
    • "SIR DON / COULDN'T SLING A SWORD AS FAST AS HIS DRINK": Don Derouen (quality assurance leader)
    • "SIR DEE / TWAS JUST A FLESH WOUND": Dee Starns (English quality assurance leader)
    • "HERE LIES HOFFMAN / KILLED BY BUGS": Andrew Hoffmann (playtester)
    • "HERE LIES CHEL / SOME SAY SHE WAS A LOVELY BELLE": Michelle Lindner (playtester)
    • "SHELTON / MY BODY LIES BUT STILL I ROAM": Tobin Shelton (playtester)
    • "HERE UNDERGROUND LIES EDDIE / TOOK A KNIFE / NOW HE'S DEADIE": Eddie Stringer (playtester)
    • "SIR TODD / I'M NOT DEAD YET / I'M GETTING BETTER": Todd Wachhaus (playtester)
    • "WITH HIS HEAD ASHAVE / HE WAS SO VERY BRAVE / STARR" Starr Long (French quality assurance leader)
    • "BETTY BLAH-BLAH / KILLED BY TOO MANY WORDS": Betty Peltier (French translator)
    • "HERE LIES SEAN BY THE SHORE / SAID TO DEATH JUST ONE MORE!": Sean Mustakas (German quality assurance leader)
    • "SIR ROBERT TRIED TO FLY / FOUND GRAVITY A [sic] UNFORGIVING FOE": Robert Garriott (Origin co-founder; participated in aforementioned skydiving trip)
    • "ENTOMBED IS KAI / TRUSTY AND WISE / TOILS AT WORK / THEN DIES": Kai Stringer (Origin recruiter)
  • The Pagan Calendar is based on six times of day, six days per week, and six months per year. This could be interpreted as representing 666, the biblical "Number of the Beast".
  • Many of the small beige mushrooms found in plentiful supply around the island are psychedelic. Eating them will frequently induce a color-shifting effect for a short period, at the cost of three hit points (albeit never to the point of death).

Ultima IX[edit]

Main article: Ultima IX: Ascension
Phyllis Jones' grave
  • The Avatar's house on Earth contains several Easter eggs:
    • Opening and closing the refrigerator in the kitchen eight times will materialize severed human body parts.
    • The stove shows the reflection of the artist who designed it.
    • The various paintings hanging throughout the house are box covers from previous Ultima games.
    • When powered on, both televisions show an EA Sports commercial, complete with announcer.
    • Activating the computer will display a brief "coming soon" advertisement for Ultima Online 2, which was in development at the time but eventually canceled.
    • Some real-world books appear once more: The Wizard of Oz, Stranger in a Strange Land, and Hubert's Hair-Raising Adventure.
  • The prisoner claiming to be Lord British in Castle Britannia's dungeon is Richard Garriott, whose most prominent alter-ego is Britannia's long-reigning monarch. In the course of his rantings, this individual also impersonates Shamino, another of Garriott's in-game personas.
  • In the optional section of Hythloth, there is one sequence where the Avatar must shrink down to enter a small passage, which is done by drinking some special water. This is in reference to Alice in Wonderland.
  • In the mountains near Yew is a large, decorated tombstone dedicated to Phyllis Jones, the late mother of lead artist Scott Jones.
  • In the Britain cemetery near the haunted house is a grave for Lord Brinne. "Lord Brinne" was the screen name of Bill Iburg, a prominent and vivid member of the Ultima Horizons community who died mere months prior to the game's release. Touched by his passing and the outpouring of grief online, Richard Garriott and the Ultima IX team created this in-game memorial for him. Lord Brinne also received dedications in Might and Magic VIII, Deus Ex, and Morrowind.

Spin-offs[edit]

Runes of Virtue II[edit]

Main article: Ultima: Runes of Virtue II
Martin Galway in the Origin building.
Book congratulating Herman Miller and Paul Isaac
  • In the Super Nintendo version there are Origin headquarters located under the city of Jhelom, accessed via its well and marked by a sign reading, "Welcome to Origin!" Present are several members of the Runes of Virtue II development team: producer Alan Gardner; programmers Heather Barclay and Nathan Daughety; artists Karl Dolgener, Sam Lascowski, and Terry Manderfeld (appearing as Terry the Adventurer); composers Raymond Benson, Martin Galway, and Marc Shaefgen; assistant designer Scott Hazle; and designer-programmer Gary Scott Smith (appearing as Gnu Gnu). There is also book in the top-right corner of the enclosure congratulating Origin employees Herman Miller and Paul Isaac for "winning the ROV2 map designing contest".

References[edit]

  1.  "Hearth of Britannia Dragonsmeet 2014-05-12". YouTube. 2014-05-12. Retrieved 2015-08-09.
  2. Garriott, Richard. "Richard Garriott on Twitter". Twitter. 2016-08-24. Retrieved 2016-08-26.
  3. Addams, Shay. "A Flair for Ingenuity". The Official Book of Ultima. COMPUTE Publications: 1992. Pages 58–59.
  4. Garriott de Cayeux, Richard. "What is a Lord British “Ultimate” Role Playing Game?". Shroud of the Avatar. Retrieved 2015-08-09.
  5. Addams, Shay. "The Time Map". The Official Book of Ultima. COMPUTE Publications: 1992. Page 19.
  6. Scorpia et al. "Speaking of Clues". Computer Gaming World. Golden Empire Publications Inc.: May 1988. Pages 12-13.
  7. Addams, Shay. "Real-Life Fantasy Worlds". The Official Book of Ultima. COMPUTE Publications: 1992. Page 30.
  8. Carlson, Mark. "Brewmeister's Transcript of Lord British's DragonCon Speech". The Ultima Compendium. Retrieved 2011-05-25.
  9. 9.0 9.1 Wilson, Johnny et al. "Electronic Arts And Origin Pool Resources in "Ultimate" Acquisition". Computer Gaming World. Golden Empire Publications, Inc.: November 1992. Page 176.
  10. Addams, Shay. "Unexpected Surprises". The Official Book of Ultima. COMPUTE Publications: 1992. Pages 71-72.
  11. Berdak, Keith. "Artwork by Keith Berdak (Some, anyway!)". Facebook. 2015-09-08. Retrieved 2015-10-02.
  12. Varney, Allen. "The Conquest of Origin". The Escapist. 2005-10-11. Retrieved 2015-08-09.
  13. Kumar, Mathew. "The Making of Ultima VII: The Black Gate". PC Gamer UK. Future Publishing Ltd: December 2011. Page 154.
  14. Garriott, Richard. "Richard Garriott on Twitter". Twitter. 2014-03-03. Retrieved 2015-08-09.
  15.  Ultima VII: The Black Gate - Characters List. July 2, 1991. Page 8.
  16. Garrity, Joe. "The Bar that killed the King". Dino's Ultima Page. 2003-07-27. Retrieved 2015-08-09.
  17. Kully, Kenneth. "How An Erroneous TVTropes Entry Led to Some Fascinating Ultima Lore Revelations". The Ultima Codex. 2014-05-12. Retrieved 2015-08-09.
  18. 18.0 18.1 Kully, Kenneth. "“The Night the Directors Left.” – An Interview with Bill Armintrout". The Ultima Codex. 2013-03-25. Retrieved 2015-08-09.
  19. 19.0 19.1 Kully, Kenneth. "“We had a lot of fun with the other explosives…” – An Interview with Jason Ely". The Ultima Codex. 2014-03-18. Retrieved 2015-08-09.